Mitoura siva chalcosiva

Photo Life History: Mitoura siva chalcosiva

Habitat:  Pinyon Juniper

Host Plants:   Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus scopulorum

Suitable Lab Host Plants:  Other Juniper species.

How to Find Female Butterflies:  Females can be found flying near larval host plant or nectaring on rabbitbrush or yellow composites.

How to Care for Live Female Butterflies:  Click here.

Methods of Female Oviposition:  Open Screen Cages; Portable Cages.  Place females with host plant cuttings in a small cage and expose females to intermittent light. Females of the genus Callophrys  (and possibly other Theclinae) go inactive is exposed to constant light or constant shade.  Alternating light; even artificial light seems to stimulate them to oviposit with better consistency.

How to Find Eggs:  Not productive

How to Hatch Eggs:  Separate eggs individually.

How to Find Caterpillars in the Field:  Not productive.  Caterpillars camouflage themselves quite well against their host; which can be so substantial that it makes caterpillar hunting not practical.

Caterpillar setups:  Open terrariums; Twin Cup Method.

Larva to Pupa: Larva Changes Color

How to Find Pupae in the Field:

Number of Broods per Year:  1-2.  The second flight is a partial flight.

Overwintering Stage:  Pupa. 

Overwintering Strategies:  Your Own Backyard; Refrigerator

Post-Hibernation Strategies: Expose post-diapause pupae to increased temperature, long-day photoperiod , and higher humidity.  Because pupae of Theclinae and other lycaenids partially develop imago characters in the pupal stage before diapause, adults can emerge rapidly in the late winter/early spring after being exposed to very slight increases in temperature.  In other words, Callophrys and Incisalia pupae have been known to break diapause and emerge in the refrigerator in January and February!!  (Sometimes they can fully expand their wings under these conditions and sometimes they can't.)  Monitor pupae closely towards the back end of your cold treatment and make sure that they are exposed to room temperatures when they emerge.

Avoiding Diapause Techniques:  Healthy Host Plant; Expose larvae to 24 hours of light.

Disease Prevention:  Change out host plant and remove frass every six to eight days in an open terrarium setup.  Juniper cuttings do stay healthy for about a week.

Emergence:  Emergence Container

Field Notes: