Anthocharis julia

Photo Life History:  Anthocharis julia

Habitat:  Mountain Canyons

Host Plants: Arabis perennans; Arabis drummondii; Arabis sparsiflora; Arabis glabra; Arabidopsis thaliana; Isatis tinctoria; Descurainia pinnata

Suitable Lab Host Plants: Any Arabis species; Isatis tinctoria

Caring for Live Female Butterflies:  Feed females regularly; Do NOT place live females in glassine envelopes for ANY period of time.  They stress easily and can die.  Also, they can lose legs when placed in a glassine envelope.

Methods of Female Oviposition:  Portable Cages; Open Screen Cages

How to Find Eggs: Look on Flower Stems; Isolated Host Plants Females from the Type Locality (near Lake Tahoe) of Anthocharis julia stella oviposit on stems either in the middle of host Arabis or towards the bottom of the plant.  This likely is the case because many flowerheads of the host plant were chewed off by deer or some other animal.

How to Hatch Eggs:  Separate eggs individually; Keep egg on original leaf

How to Find Caterpillars in the Field:  It is abundantly easier to find eggs and/or to get eggs out of live females.  Try to show up about 7 - 10 days after the males have started flying.  It can be difficult to locate late instar larvae, (many will have been taken out by predation.)  Look for Caterpillar Strip Patterns.  Most A. thoosa mustards are also used commonly by Pontia sisymbri, Euchloe hyantis, Euchloe ausonides, and sometimes Pontia protodice.

Caterpillar setups:  Open terrariums; Open Bucket

Larva to Pupa:  Larva Changes Color (goes from light green to darker green)

How to Find Pupae in the Field:

Number of Broods per Year: 1 brood 

Overwintering Stage:  Pupa. 

Overwintering Strategies: Your Own Backyard; Refrigerator

Post-Hibernation Strategies: Expose pupae to warmer temperatures, long-day photoperiod, and intermittant humidity (mist spray with water once or twice a day).

Avoiding Diapause Techniques:  Not effective for univoltine populations. 

Disease Prevention:  Change out host plant and remove frass every three to four days.

Emergence:  Emergence Container

Field Notes:  Due to field research (in press), subspecies julia, browningi, sulfuris, stella, flora, columbia, and alaskensis are applied to species 'julia'.