Papilio zelicaon zelicaon

Photo Life History:  Papilio zelicaon zelicaon

Habitat:  Mountain Canyons; Mountain Hilltops; Urban-Suburban; (West Coast populations fly in association with Foeniculum vulgare.)

Host Plants:  Foeniculum vulgare; Sphenosciadium capitellatum

Suitable Lab Host Plants: Most any parsley will do.  Raising larvae on native host Foeniculum vulgare works great.

Caring for Live Female Butterflies:  Feed females regularly.

Methods of Female Oviposition:  Open Screen Cages

How to Find Eggs: Isolated Host Plants

How to Hatch Eggs:  Consolidate eggs into one container

How to Find Caterpillars in the Field:  Isolated Host Plants

Caterpillar setups:  Open terrariums; Open Bucket

Larva to Pupa:  Larva purges and wanders

How to Find Pupae in the Field: Normally difficult; but, Southern California P. zelicaon have been known to pupate right on fennel. 

Number of Broods per Year: 1-4 depending upon location.

Overwintering Stage:  Pupa.

Overwintering Strategies: Your Own Backyard; Refrigerator

Post-Hibernation Strategies: Expose pupae to warmer temperatures, long-day photoperiod; and mist spraying.  Pupae should emerge within a couple of weeks. 

Avoiding Diapause Techniques:  Healthy Host Plant; Expose larvae to 24 hours of light

Disease Prevention:  Change out host plant and remove frass every four to six days using the open bucket or open terrarium techniques.

Emergence:  Emergence Container

Field Notes:  Anise swallowtail caterpillars are not difficult to find in areas where the adults fly in good numbers.  If you can't find caterpillars on local fennel, try setting up a female to get eggs.